CORONA VIRUS DISEASE [COVID – 19]
Introduction of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
- The new CORONA VIRUS, now known as COVID-19, was first encountered in Wuhan, China on December 2019. It have now spread across the globe.
- The name COVID-19 was announced on February 11 by WHO.
- Corona virus was originated in animal first and then migrated to humans.
- COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the virus strain : SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONA VIRUS 2 [SARS COV-2]
- [DOUBT] The diseases was discovered 7 named during the 2019-2020 corona virus outbreak.
- The word corona virus is derived from Latin which means crown or halo, due to its characteristic appearance which takes the form of a crown with protrusions around it and hence is known as CORONA VIRUS.
- It contains a core of genetic material surrounded by an envelope of protein spikes.
- Corona viruses are group of viruses which cause disease in mammals and birds. These are RNA viruses with genome of 26 -32 kilo-bases.
- First corona viruses was detected in 1960’s which caused mild respiratory disease in chickens.
- Corona viruses are zoonotic I.e., virus is transmitted between animals and people . Corona Virus [COV] are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME [MERS–COV] and SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME [SARS-COV].
Origin of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[Where does Corona Virus comes from?]
- A Novel Corona Virus [ncov] is a new strain that hasn’t been previously identified in humans.
- SARS-COV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS–COV from dromedary camels to humans.
- COVID-19 was isolated by JINYINTANG HOSPITAL ,WUHAN.
- As the isolation was too late, it has spread of thousands of people. Infecting thousands of people around the globe. It was first observed in China, but has now been observed in 100’s of countries.
Spreading of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[How exactly does Corona Virus spread?]
An infected person can spread the infection to a healthy person.
- Through eyes, nose and mouth, via droplets produced on coughing or sneezing.
- Close contacts with infected person.
- Contact with contaminated surfaces, objects or items of personal use.
[How does Corona Virus spread?]
Droplet infection – When an infected person coughs or sneezes, the particles (virus traces) suspend in the air and causes infection to the healthy person when inhaled. Which is why it is recommended that people should cover their mouth and nose while sneezing and coughing.
- In some other cases it even spread through personal things (closely connected) I.e., clothes ,keys, switches, door handles, mobile, etc…
- And also through animal market workers.
Common Signs and Symptoms of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
Most of the symptoms are related to respiratory diseases which can be of mild to severe.
- High fever
- Shortness of breath
- Feeling tired.
- Kidney failure
Recovering from Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[Can we recover from Corona Virus?]
Yes, it is possible to recover from Corona Virus. We experience only mild symptoms like fever, coughing and respiratory problems. Most probably people recover. But can pose a particular risk for elderly people and those with pre-existing problems like diabetes and cancer.
In fact, about 80% of people have recovered from the disease without needing special treatment.
How does Corona Virus (COVID-19) cause infection
The virus is spread through droplets transmitted into the air from coughing or sneezing, which people nearby can take in through their nose, mouth or eyes. The viral particles in the droplets travel quickly to the back of your nasal passages and to the mucous membranes in the back of your throat, attaching to a particular receptor in cells, beginning there. Corona Virus particles have spiked proteins sticking out from their surfaces and these spikes hook onto cell membranes, allowing the virus’s genetic material to enter the human cell. The genetic material proceeds to “hijack the metabolism of the cell.
Corona Virus (COVID-19) hijacking cells
The virus that causes COVID-19 is currently spreading around the world. At least six other types of Corona Virus are known to infect humans, with some causing the common cold and two causing outbreaks : SARS and MERS.
The Corona Virus is named after the crown like spikes that protrude from its surface. The virus is enveloped in a bubble of oily lipid molecules, which falls apart on contact with soap.
The virus enters the body through the nose, mouth or eyes, then attaches to cells in the airway that produce a protein called ACE2. The virus is believed to have originated in bats, where it may have attached to a similar protein.
The virus infects the cell by fusing its oily membrane with the membrane of the cell. Once inside, the corona virus releases a snippet of genetic material called RNA.
The virus’s genome is less than 30,000 genetic “letters” long. (Ours is over 3 billion.) The infected cell reads the RNA and begins making proteins that will keep the immune system at bay and help assemble new copies of the virus. Antibiotics kill bacteria and do not work against viruses. But researchers are testing antiviral drugs that might disrupt viral proteins and stop the infection.
As the infection progresses, the machinery of the cell begins to chrun out new spikes and other proteins that will form more copies of the Corona Virus.
Assembling New Copies – New copies of the virus are assembled and carried to the outer edges of the cell.
Spreading the Infection – Each infected cell can release millions of copies of the virus before the cell finally breaks down and dies. The viruses may infect nearby cells, or end up in droplets that escape the lungs.
Immune Response – Most COVID-19 infections cause a fever as the immune system fights to clear the virus. In severe cases, the immune system can overreact and start attacking lung cells. The lungs become obstructed with fluid and dying cells, making it difficult to breathe. A small percentage of infections can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, and possibly death.
Leaving the body – Coughing and sneezing can expel virus laden droplets onto nearby people and surfaces, which the virus can remain infectious for several hours to several days. That’s why it’s recommended to wear masks.
How does the above process cause respiratory problems?
As copies of the virus multiply, they burst out and infect neighboring cells. The symptoms often start in the back of the throat with a sore throat and a dry cough. The virus then “crawls progressively down the bronchial tubes.” When the virus reaches the lungs, their mucous membranes become inflamed. That can damage the alveoli or lung sacs and they have to work harder to carry out their function of supplying oxygen to the blood that circulates through out the body and removing carbon dioxide from the blood so that it can be exhaled.
“If you get swelling there, it makes it that much more difficult for oxygen to swim across the mucous membrane.”
The swelling and the impaired flow of oxygen can cause those areas in the lungs to fill with fluid, pus and dead cells. Pneumonia, an infection in the lung, can occur.
Some people have so much trouble breathing that they need to put on a ventilator. In the worst cases, known as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, the lungs fill with so much fluid that no amount of breathing support can help, and the patient dies.
Are the lungs only part in human body that’s affected?
Not necessarily, since the infection can spread through the mucous membrane, from the nose down to the rectum.
So while the virus appears to zero in on the lungs, it may also be able to infect cells in the gastrointestinal system. This may be why some patients have symptoms like diarrhea or indigestion. The virus can also get into the bloodstream.
Severity of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[How deadly is Corona Virus?]
Corona virus has “high infection mobility but low mortality”.
- Mortality rate ranges between 2-3%. It is significantly less severe than 2003 SARS (MR: 10%) or 2012 MERS (MR: 35%)
- Risk of death is only higher in older people (above an age of ~60 years) and people with pre-existing health conditions
Eating non-veg causes Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[Does eating non-veg like chicken or eggs cause Corona Virus?]
Let’s make it clear, Corona virus was first found in bats. Since there is no relation of chicken with bats, there is no such evidence that can prove that eating Chicken or even eggs may cause Corona Virus.
Yet, it is recommended to be on save side, isn’t it? So, it is better to be away from non-vegan food for a span of time.
- The novel coronavirus is not known to spread directly through poultry products. But, experts say it can be a good option to have only properly cooked meat.
Life span of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[How long does the Corona Virus survive or live over the surfaces and objects?]
- Corona Virus traces Survives up to 8-10 hours (and may take 12 hours to totally eliminate the virus) over porous surfaces (like paper, untreated wood, cardboard, sponge and fabric) and a little more than this over nonporous surfaces (like glass, plastics, metals, varnished wood).
Soap action on Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[How does soap works on Corona Virus?]
Soap destroys the virus when the water-shunning tails of the soap molecules wedge themselves into the lipid membrane and pry it apart.
The best way to avoid getting infected with the Corona Virus is to wash your hands with soap, avoid touching your face, keep your distance from sick people and regularly clean frequently used surfaces.
Understand the below images taken as reference from a YouTube video, which you will find below.
Soap annihilates virus. As virus is surrounded with protein and fat.
FAT + WATER ——-> FLOATS
FAT + WATER + SOAP ——-> FAT GETS DISSOLVED
As the soap contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules.
Since, the above question and we have observed majority of doctors recommending to use soap. All the virus cell contents will be washed out. Isolating our hands and body from Corona Virus (and other virus). That is why, Soap.
Diagnosis of Corona Virus [COVID-19]
Diagnosis is done through Polymerase Chain Reaction [PCR]. PCR detects minute quantities of genetic material of virus and amplifies it.
[Why are very few designated labs are used for testing Corona Virus patients?]
[Why can’t people get home sample collection done for Corona Virus?]
- It is because the virus is highly contagious and can only be tested by special labs equipped to handle such contagious pathogens. As of now, only labs with bio safety level 4 (BSL4) can handle the COVID-19 samples.
People who are infected with Corona Virus (COVID-19) must remain isolated and move to quarantine. Since, the rate of mobility of this virus is high, it’s better to be isolated during tests for Corona Virus. If it’s negative then you will be prescribed few medicines for prevention purpose, and if tested positive, then you may have to be remain isolated and undergo treatment. It is not possible for you to get yourself tested at home, since, there maybe other people residing with you. So, to avoid the spread, the tests are been taken at designated labs only.
Symptoms of Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[How do I know if I have Corona Virus?]
Corona Virus can get you symptoms like fever, cough, shortness of breath. They can be almost similar to common cold or flu and may appear 2-14 days of exposure. Severity of illness can vary in different people from mild to severe symptoms.
Getting tested for Corona Virus (COVID-19)
[When should I get tested for Corona Virus?]
When virus enters into our body, our body responds to the foreign matter and shows the symptoms like :
DAY – 0 : Fatigue (tiredness)
DAY – 3 : Itchy throat, Mild fever, Cough
DAY- 4 : Mild Headache – Experiencing frequently (sometimes totally disappearing).
DAY- 5 : Gastro-intestinal problems like Diarrhea, Cramps along with headache and fever may be normal or increased.
DAY – 6 and 7 : More body pains , decreased headache , diarrhea increased or decreased, upset stomach, loss of appetite.
DAY – 8 and 9 : Symptoms decrease i.e., low fever, headache but cough persists [because as the infected person is resistant to virus antibodies are formed – symptoms are reduced].
IF IT IS WORSE THAN BEFORE THEN WE MUST UNDERGO TESTING. BUT PLEASE DON’T PANIC ON THE DAY 1 ITSELF.
Prevention towards Corona Virus (COVID-19)
- No vaccination yet, flu vaccines cant destroy the corona virus completely.
- The best option is to avoid being exposed to virus.
- Wash your hands or 20 seconds.
- Use Alcohol base sanitizer. That contains at least 60% alcohol or more.
- Cover your face while cough and sneeze.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, mouth with unwashed hands.
- Stay at home when you are sick and avoid close contact with people who are sick.
- Clean hands when you touch frequently used objects.
- Clean your phone with alcohol wipes (on avg person picks up their phone 2600 a day & uses it around 76 times) to help combat the spread.
- Wash clothes thoroughly.
Along with all the above steps, you are recommended to wear mask, but it is really confusing to understand which mask it better for protecting against the Corona Virus.
- The 3-layer disposable surgical masks are good enough to contain the virus.
- N-95 or N-99 masks are not mandated.
INDIA steps against Corona Virus (COVID-19)
India have taken major steps to avoid the spread of Corona Virus. They have setup Quarantines at various people to isolate people who have been tested positive for Corona Virus. There was shutdown of schools, malls and places where there can be public gathering announced on 13th March, 2020 till 31st March, 2020 (which is expected to increase if there is any more increased cases found).
Prime minister Narendra Modi, announced ‘Janta Curfew’ on 22nd March, 2020. Where all the people residing in India are asked to isolate them self and have public distancing for one day, from 7 AM to 9 AM. Which is around 14 hours, the main reason behind this is, since you may have read that the Corona virus requires 12 hours to get completely isolate from surface and objects, this Janta Curfew in India would make it possible to eliminate Corona virus spread all over country (been 14 hours long).
Let us support this act, and remain at our home for 14 hours, I.e., on 22nd March, 2020 (SUNDAY) and make India free from Corona Virus.
Thank you for reading this article on Corona Virus, we hope for you and your family to be safe from Corona Virus.
Follow the 3 P’s –
Protect your loved ones.
Protect your community.
Some more related diseases can be found below :
Ischemic Heart Disease – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/ischemic-heart-disease/
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/
Jaundice – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/jaundice-icterus/
Tuberculosis – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/tuberculosis/
Gonorrhoea – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/gonorrhoea/
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I, M. Sneha, requests you to be aware and remain healthy.