Gonorrhoea

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Gonorrhoea

Definition of Gonorrhoea

Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by Neisseria Gonorrhoea, a gram-negative diplococci, which is an intracellular organism that is transmitted sexually and infects the genital mucous membrane of both the sexes, may cause infertility.

Etiology of Gonorrhoea

Gonorrhoea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoea, it is often passed from one person to another during sexual contact, including oral, anal or vaginal intercourse.

  • It can also pass from an infected mother to her baby during delivery.

Pathophysiology of Gonorrhoea

Neisseria is an intracellular pathogen.
arrow
It binds to the epithelial cells of the host by pili.
arrowAdhesion leads to internalization of the bacteria which is mediated by another set of adhesive proteins.
arrowBacteria secretes proteases that cleave IgA (antibody) of the epithelial cells.
arrowIt releases peptidoglycans and endotoxins which induce the release of TNF-α (alpha) [ Tumor necrosis factor – mediator) from the host cells.
arrowTNF-α (alpha) damages the epithelial cells and leads to Multisystem failure.
arrowGonococcal lesions show exudative ren, pus formation followed by granulomas formulation.
arrowPlasma cell infiltration and fibrosis is also seen.

Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhoea

  1. It affects the cervix, urethra, rectum, anus and throat.
  2. In females, the symptoms are,
  • Changing in vaginal discharge (yellow or bloody)
  • Bleeding associated with vaginal intercourse.
  • Pain or burning sensation during voiding (urination or defecation).
  • Development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
  • Irritation and discharge from the anus.
  • Infection of Fallopian tubes.
  • Chances of ectopic pregnancy.

3. In males, the symptoms are,

  • Pus from the penis.
  • Yellow or white discharge from the penis.
  • Burning sensation during micturition.
  • Irritation and discharge from the anus.
  • Painful bowel movements with fresh blood accompanying the faeces.
  • Inflammation of the testicles and prostrate gland.

Complications of Gonorrhea

In women, gonorrhea can lead to:

  • Pelvic inflammatory disease, a condition that can cause abscesses.
  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • Infertility.
  • Ectopic pregnancies – pregnancy where the embryo attaches outside of the uterus.

In men, a gonorrheal infection can lead to:

  • Epididymitis – Inflammation of the epididymis, which controls the production of sperm.
  • Infertility.

Both men and women are at disk of developing a life-threatening disseminated gonococcal infection when gonorrhea is untreated. This type of infection is often characterized by:

  1. Fever.
  2. Arthritis.
  3. Tenosynovitis – Inflammation and swelling around tendons.

Further complications of a gonorrheal infection can occur in pregnant women during delivery; it is possible to pass the infection to the child. Gonorrhea passed to an infant can cause join infection, blindness, or a life-threatening blood infection.

Also, infected women are at an increased risk for premature labor or stillbirth if left untreated.

Gonorrhea Gonorrhea

Treatment of Gonorrhea

  1. Abstaining from sexual intercourse.
  2. Having sexual activity with a mutually monogamous, unaffected partner.

Some more related diseases can be found below :
Ischemic Heart Disease – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/ischemic-heart-disease/
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/
Jaundice – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/jaundice-icterus/
Tuberculosis – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/tuberculosis/

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