Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)


Hypertension (High B.P)

Definition of Hypertension also known as High blood pressure (BP)

Hypertension is the term used to describe an elevation in blood pressure. Hypertension doubles the risk of all forums of cardiovascular disease. It acts probably by mechanical injury to the arterial wall due to increased blood pressure.

  • It is the term used to describe an elevation in blood pressure. It doubles the risk of all forums of cardiovascular disease.
  • It acts probably by mechanical injury to the arterial wall due to increased blood pressure.


Etiology (causes) of High blood pressure (Hypertension)

The causes for High B.P are unknown, but there are number of factors related to it’s development.
1. Usual Lifestyle
2. Genetic Factors from our family hierarchy
3. Blood Plasma Volume
4. Kidney Diseases
5. Endocrine Problem
6. Neurogenic
7. Coarctation of Aorta

Risk Factors caused due to High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

1. Age (Common to the people who are more than 60 years)
2. Over weight (Obesity)
3. Alcohol and tobacco consumption
4. Sex (Males have higher risk than females)
5. Race
6. Not being physically active.
7. Too much salt (sodium) in your diet (retains fluid).
8. Too little potassium in your diet (Potassium maintains equilibrium to Sodium, if Potassium is low, then Sodium will be accumulated)
9. Stress

Classification of Hypertension

Hypertension is generally classified into 2 types:

  1. Primary or essential hypertension:
  • It is the condition in which the cause of increase in blood pressure in unknown.
  • Essential hypertension (High BP) constitutes about 80-95% patients of hypertension.
  1. Secondary Hypertension:
  • It is the condition in which the increase in blood pressure is caused by diseases of the kidneys, endocrines or some other organs.
  • Secondary hypertension comprises remaining 5-20% cases of high blood pressure.
  • According to clinical course, both essential and secondary hypertension may be benign or malignant.

Benign hypertension is moderate elevation of blood pressure and the rise is slow over the years. About 90-95% patients of hypertension have benign hypertension.

Secondary Hypertension:

  • Though much less common than essential hypertension, mechanisms under-lying secondary hypertension with identifiable cause have been studied more extensively.
  • Based on the etiology, these are described under dour headings.
    – Renal hypertension
    – Endocrine hypertension
    – Hypertension associated with coarctation of aorta and
    – Neurogenic causes.

The Pathogenetic mechanism in essential high blood pressure is explained by many theories.
These are as under:

  1. High Plasma level of catecholamines.
  2. Increase in blood volume i.e arterial overfilling (volume hypertension) and arteriolar constriction (vasoconstrictor hypertension).
  3. Increased cardiac output.
  4. Low-renin essential hypertension found in approximately 20% patients due to altered responsiveness to renin release.
  5. High renin essential hypertension seen in about 15% cases due to decrease adrenal responsiveness to angiotensin II.

Renal factors

Comparing arteries with and without High Blood pressure (High BP) in heart valves

Heart arteries due to Blood Pressure

Arterial Pressure during High Blood Pressure or High BP

Blood pressure chart

Symptoms of High blood pressure (High BP symptoms)

  • Basically, no symptoms. Overtime, if untreated, it can cause health conditions such as heart disease and stroke.

Complications Of Hypertension (High blood pressure – High BP)

complications of hypertension

Main complications of persistent (High Blood Pressure – High BP)


  1. Cerebrovascular accident (strokes)
  2. Hypertensive encephalopathy
    – Confusion
    – Headache
    – Convulsion


  1. Elevated Sugar Levels

Retina of eye:

  1. Hypertensive retinopathy


  1. Myocardial infraction (heart attack)
  2. Hypertensive cardiomyopathy: Heart Failure.


  1. Hypertensive nephropathy: Chronic renal failure.


1. Keep along with consistent physical exercise.
2. Stress Management along with proper mental health maintenance.
3. Low Sodium Diet.
4. ACE (Angiotensin Converting enzyme) inhibitor, diuretic, Beta-blocker, Antihypertensive drugs, calcium channel blocker and vasodilators.

Stages (reduction)

high Bp reduction


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