Nanorobots in treating Anti-HIV
- There is no specific technology for the treatment of AIDS.
- Some drugs of specific composition are given to the patients which are able to increase the lifetime to a few years only.
- To make the treatment more specific we use the new technology called Nanotechnology which has a bio-medical application.
- The size of nanorobots is about 100 times lesser than the size of an animal cell and hence it can easily monitor the behaviour of cell inside the body.
- Nanorobots use nano sensors to sense the AIDS infected WBCs and convert them into original WBCs.
- It operates at specific sites and has no side effects. (constant levels are maintained)
Thus, the AIDS patient is provided with the immune system so that one can defend themself from AIDS.
Introduction of Nanorobots
Nano is one billionth of 1cm. It is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of nanometers (10^-9 meters)
- Nanorobots would be typically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers. Nanorobots will typically be 5-3 microns large with 1-100 nm parts. 3 Microns is the upper limit of any nanorobot because nanorobots of large size will block capillary flow.
They work at atomic, molecular and cellular levels.
- Nanorobots are likely to be constructed of carbon atoms generally in diamond structure because of inert properties and strength, glucose (or) natural body sugars and oxygen might be source at propulsion (the action of driving or pushing forwards), nanorobots will respond to acoustic signals (sound).
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
- AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.
- AIDS is caused by a lentivirus I.e., humans immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that ravages the immune system, undermining the body’s ability to defend itself from infection and disease.
- AIDS leaves an infected person vulnerable to opportunistic infections which can prove fatal (I.e., by suppression of immune system).
Human Immunodeficiency virus.
- Like all viruses, HIV can’t grow or reproduce on its own, it needs a living host organism.
- HIV is a retrovirus under the subgroup of lentivirus.
- An HIV particle is around 100-150 billionths of a meter in diameter I.e 0.1 micro which is 1/7th of the diameter of a human CO4+ white bood cell.
- HIV principally attacks CD4 T cells, which plays a vital role/part of the HI systems.
- As, a result, the body’s ability to resist the opportunistic viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoal and other infection is greatly weakened.
Causes of HIV
- Sexual contact
- Parenteral transmission
- Transplacental transmission
Dramatic weight loss, diarrhoea, fever, night sweats, oral candidiasis, short term memory loss, severe pain or numbness in hands and feet.
Components of Anti-HIV nanorobots
Interior – It will be closed, vacuum env into which liquids from the outside can’t normally enter unless it is needed for chemical analysis.
Exterior – It will be subjected to various chemical liquid in our bodies.
When it will come in contact of an infected cell, it will react with it and undergo immunochemical reaction.
A chip which will receive the signal from nanobiosensor and will perform its job.
A tube in nanoscale. On receiving +ve signal the nanotube will injected into the nucleus of the cell by nanochip.
It contain highly conc. DNAse and RNase enzyme c_ will be delivered into the infected cell and will leave the whole genomic DNA into single nucleotides (loss of viral effect)
The nanorobot consists of 3 main parts like –
DNA sensor (To identify the HIV infected cell)
RNA convertor (To change RNA of HIV)
CPU (controls all the activities)
Power system (Provides the necessary energy for the working of the n-robot)
Process of Anti-HIV nanorobots
Biosensors identify a particular compound
As the biosensor have particular antibody that reacts with Antigen (g41 and gp120) of HIV envelope.
Antibody – Antigen reaction gives the proper signal.
This reaction takes place only if the person is infected (viral proteins are found in cell membrane)
Positive signal – Nanorobot will inject its nanotube into the nucleus of the infected cell and release the DNAse, RNase enzymes into cell.
DNA cleave the whole genome into single nucleotide.
Apoptosis (after loss of viral effect and digestion)
Since, infected cell of the diseased body can be destroyed to finish off the viral genome in the body.
Reasons for applying Nanotech to biological system
- Zidovudine is the latest drug that is used for treatment of AIDS. But the drug may loss its efficiency any time due to mutation at the codon triplet (sequence of 3 DNA or RNA nucleotides)
- Due to this there is reduction in the affinity of zidovudine towards viral genome and leads to replication and integration of viral genome.
- Zidovudine can be used to resist the HIV but the virus can’t be destroyed.
- Hence, destruction of viral genome is possible by using nanorobts as it contains nanobiosensor, containing highly conc. enzymes.
- Nanotech can’t detect disease in a very small amount of cells and tissue by interacting with DNA and protein.
- Nanotech offer a faster and more efficient means for us to do much of what we do now.
Advantages of using Anti-HIV nanorobots
- More than million people in this world are affected by this dreaded disease.
- Currently there is no permanent vaccine or medicine is available to cure the disease.
- The currently available drugs can increase the patients life to a few years only, so the invention of this nanorobot will make the patients to get rid of the disease.
- The initial cost of development is only high but the manufacturing by bactch processing reduces the cost.
Disadvantages of using Anti-HIV nanorobots
- The nanorobot should be very accurate, otherwise harmful effects may occur.
- The initial design cost is very high.
- The design of this nanorobot is a very complicated one.
Some more related diseases can be found below :
Ischemic Heart Disease – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/ischemic-heart-disease/
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/
Jaundice – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/jaundice-icterus/
Tuberculosis – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/tuberculosis/
Gonorrhoea – http://pharmadiagnosis.com/gonorrhoea/
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